HP Discovery and Dependency Mapping


Understanding the capability of an organisation is becoming fundamental to any transformation/change programme. Typically, this capability is often captured through Business Process mapping and modelling techniques. However, as technology advances continue, more and more vendors are providing automated solutions and tools to help with “discovering” assets across the enterprise and interpreting the “dependency” between Business services and Technology typically delivered through IT Departments.

This article introduces interesting advances being made by HP in the area of Application Discovery and Dependency Mapping (ADDM).

I’d encourage CTOs, Enterprise Architects and IT Directors to continue reading and to embrace these new advances to help them better understand how to align Business and Technology in their organisation.

Advanced visibility into services and infrastructure

HP Discovery and Dependency Mapping Advanced Edition (DDMA) software automates discovery and dependency mapping of services, applications, and underlying infrastructure. Mapping helps you perform failure impact analyses which minimize downtime. Improved visibility into IT helps you transform into a modern, flexible, and converged infrastructure that reduces operational expense, defers capital expense, and improves business uptime. 80% of all service disruptions are caused by faulty changes, and DDMA provides the visibility required for more effective changes.

Key benefits

  • Increased productivity by automating the discovery of infrastructure and software
  • Lowered mean time to resolution for critical events by understanding service decomposition
  • Increased business service availability by intelligently choosing issues to address
  • Improved visibility into existing legacy IT infrastructure for data center transformation
  • Better planning for modernization of application portfolios and IT infrastructure

Further Reading

If you’re organisation is looking to map IT dependencies to reduce downtime and expense, and plan for change, you should consider HP’s DDMA solution. See below a white paper and a rich media demonstration.

Read the latest EMA Radar Report ranking HP Discovery and Dependency Mapping Advanced Edition (DDMA) software as the “best of show” product.

For a demonstration of this solution, click here. Note that this is a Silverlight demonstration and works best in Internet Explorer v8+.

The Seven Layers of the OSI Model


As interest and take up of Cloud Computing and XaaS-based (PaaS, IaaS, DaaS, SaaS, etc) utility computing solutions increase, CIOs, CTOs, Enterprise Architects and IT Directors find themselves increasingly under pressure to understand the impact of new technologies that could help improve the agility of the an organisation and improve the competitiveness of an organisation.

However, when embarking on transformation/change initiatives, several organisations stop at Business Process Re-engineering, Business Process Management and Business Capability Mapping activities in an effort to understand how to re-align the Business and Technology functions.

To properly comprehend an organisation all aspects of “people, process and technology” need to be understood.

At this stage, when considering “processes and technology”, it is worthwhile taking a step back and reminding ourselves of the “old school” Open Systems Interconnection model (OSI model) which touches on functions of a communications system in terms of abstraction layers. This model is something that all Architects should be mindful of when looking to understand an organisation holistically. It holds the key to properly capturing information that underpins the IT related considerations that all IT departments must manage.

The OSI Model (a gentle reminder)

The Open Systems Interconnection model (OSI model) is a product of the Open Systems Interconnection effort at the International Organization for Standardization. It is a prescription of characterizing and standardizing the functions of a communications system in terms of abstraction layers. Similar communication functions are grouped into logical layers.

The OSI, or Open System Interconnection, model defines a networking framework for implementing protocols in seven layers. Control is passed from one layer to the next, starting at the application layer in one station, and proceeding to the bottom layer, over the channel to the next station and back up the hierarchy.

Application (Layer 7)

This layer supports application and end-user processes. Communication partners are identified, quality of service is identified, user authentication and privacy are considered, and any constraints on data syntax are identified. Everything at this layer is application-specific. This layer provides application services for file transfers, e-mail, and other network software services. Telnet and FTP are applications that exist entirely in the application level. Tiered application architectures are part of this layer.

Presentation (Layer 6)

This layer provides independence from differences in data representation (e.g., encryption) by translating from application to network format, and vice versa. The presentation layer works to transform data into the form that the application layer can accept. This layer formats and encrypts data to be sent across a network, providing freedom from compatibility problems. It is sometimes called the syntax layer.

Session (Layer 5)

This layer establishes, manages and terminates connections between applications. The session layer sets up, coordinates, and terminates conversations, exchanges, and dialogues between the applications at each end. It deals with session and connection coordination.

Transport (Layer 4)

This layer provides transparent transfer of data between end systems, or hosts, and is responsible for end-to-end error recovery and flow control. It ensures complete data transfer.

Network (Layer 3)

This layer provides switching and routing technologies, creating logical paths, known as virtual circuits, for transmitting data from node to node. Routing and forwarding are functions of this layer, as well as addressing, internetworking, error handling, congestion control and packet sequencing.

Data Link (Layer 2)

At this layer, data packets are encoded and decoded into bits. It furnishes transmission protocol knowledge and management and handles errors in the physical layer, flow control and frame synchronization. The data link layer is divided into two sub layers: The Media Access Control (MAC) layer and the Logical Link Control (LLC) layer. The MAC sub layer controls how a computer on the network gains access to the data and permission to transmit it. The LLC layer controls frame synchronization, flow control and error checking.

Physical (Layer 1)

This layer conveys the bit stream – electrical impulse, light or radio signal — through the network at the electrical and mechanical level. It provides the hardware means of sending and receiving data on a carrier, including defining cables, cards and physical aspects. Fast Ethernet, RS232, and ATM are protocols with physical layer components.

Is being a CIO still interesting at all?

My journey to becoming a CIO continues … While I tread what seems a lonely and winding path, I regularly come across articles that make me re-evaluate my aspirations. I found the article below and thought I’d share this for two reasons (i) as a reminder to myself, and (ii) as an insight into the role of a CIO for my followers and fellow aspiring CIOs and IT Strategy Directors / leaders.

Read on … And share any comments, thoughts and feedback.

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The CIO guide to being headhunted

As the number of UK IT professionals looking for a new career challenge rises, senior technology executives need to be aware of the pitfalls and best practices when dealing with recruitment agents and headhunters to find the best opportunity.

Recruitment firm Monster.co.uk recently polled 228 UK technology staff and found that 92% were considering changing jobs. At the senior end of the career spectrum, the latest Harvey Nash and PA Consulting CIO survey found that 170 out of 723 senior IT managers polled were actively looking for a new role, while 342 would entertain a call from a headhunter.

CIOs seem to agree that online IT resources do not cater well for senior roles, so the majority of placements will typically happen via personal networks, or headhunters and agencies specialised in executive appointments.

As well as hesitation about the frail state of UK economy and all the natural apprehension around job hunting, professionals at the top of the IT pyramid have to deal with certain particularities when seeking help to find a new role, which can be challenging at times.

Consulting while job hunting

Many people operating at a senior level in IT will often leverage their contact network and offer independent consultancy services after leaving a full-time position.

If the idea is to look for a new permanent role while working for a client as a adviser, balancing diary priorities may be tricky, according to Denise Plumpton, who stepped down from her CIO job at the Highways Agency last year and is now a consultant focused on strategy, customer service and organisational efficiency.

“The key is to be visible and available,” she says.

“It’s a more difficult balance of the diary when you are working as a consultant, compared with being in a permanent role, as you are constantly aiming to be flexible with the organisation where you are consulting and there can be an expectation by the customer that you are all theirs.”

Another senior IT executive, who left a major UK retailer last year and is currently job hunting, agreed with Plumpton and said that good diary management is critical when searching for a new role.

“If you are out of work, your time becomes even more valuable, unless you have resources available to take it easy when you are looking for a new position,” says the IT chief, who requested anonymity.

“So before agreeing to meet a headhunter, or a prospective employer for an interview, make sure they know what they are talking about and that job matches your skillset – don’t just go for anything that comes up, as it may well be a waste of everyone’s time,” he says.

Taking control of the process

Finding the right employer and the right job is not a unilateral responsibility – employers must properly articulate the role and the skills and experience they are seeking, while candidates must be able to convey their skills and experience and concentrate on the elements that are important to the employer, rather than firing standard CVs to recruitment agencies and headhunters.

Executive search agents must also fully understand the brief and also have some grasp of the employer’s business and culture. Another crucial part of their role is to provide the right level of advice and that is an area where many CIOs seem to have been let down.

“The process constantly falls down at the feedback stage. The candidate applies in good faith and is promised a reply, which all too often never happens and this is especially annoying when the candidate has met or at least spoken to the recruiter and then seems to disappear from their radar,” says Plumpton.

“We all find it tough to give negative news, I understand that when you get hundreds of applications, it can be prohibitively time consuming to reply to all, but at least honour your promises and manage candidate expectations,” she says.

“Honest feedback is also invaluable; try to make it constructive criticism, but if it really is the case that, ‘you’ll never get a job wearing that old suit’, then please do find a way to say it.”

It’s not just about technology

Even though business-IT alignment and the need to spend more time in non-technology tasks is an old constant in the CIO community, another common complaint from senior IT managers looking for a job is that headhunters will often focus on specific technology skills.

The tendency to “pigeonhole” IT managers is something John Bovill, outgoing CIO at Aurora Fashions, has also found when interacting with recruitment professionals.

“It is very important to be clear on search criteria and only compromise on the non-essential elements. Ensuring that both parties are incentivised on ensuring the correct job and company fit as a foundation for a long-term, sustainable relationship,” he says.

Bovill says he has been in the situation of not getting an interview for a job due to the recruiter’s inability to present his profile to a prospective employer, but says this was a valuable experience.

“My lesson learned was to adjust my CV to ensure it is a reflection of my style and approach, and not just the job content and achievements,” he says.

Kevin Power, former chief technology officer at United Utilities was looking for a permanent role last year before being hired as a principal consultant by Xantus Consulting. He found that the modus operandi of headhunters seemed too exclusive at times.

“I found it best to request a copy of the role definition and then qualify myself as interested and appropriate, or not. Some headhunters just appear to be following a trail of recommendations to find anyone who may be interested in the vacancy,” Power says.

Based on his experience as a manager hiring staff and as a jobseeker, Power points out that many headhunters have “unrealistic” expectations.

“They should consider providing incentives for recommending good candidates from personal networks,” he says.

The other side of the coin

Sam Gordon, associate director at CIO headhunter La Fosse Associates, says that one of the most important aspects of his job in executive search is to meet IT chiefs on a speculative basis to get a feel for their backgrounds and aspirations, as well as management and technical skills.

“A headhunter’s network is one of their most valuable tools,” says Gordon, who says his firm spends a “considerable” amount of time getting to know a client’s culture and needs before contacting candidates that could match the role.

“It is crucial to properly understand the client’s brief. When undertaking an executive search, we insist on meeting all the relevant stakeholders: peer-level management, board members and anyone else who may influence that particular role,” he says.

“We may set some non-negotiable parameters when it comes to the candidate skills and experience but we will have situations where, for example, someone has not been a CIO before but has all the qualities needed for the job and is ready to step up. Part of our job is to also challenge clients to think about a role when appropriate.”

Internet-based recruitment tools such as LinkedIn have made it easier for companies to target candidates by themselves, but using a headhunter is still necessary for senior roles, says Robert Grimsey, group marketing director at Harvey Nash.

“It is true there is a lot more that employers themselves can do to find the candidates they need than they could 10 years ago. But at the same time, the industry has become a lot more complex,” says Grimsey.

“While it is easier to get access to people, businesses often need an external party with experience in the area to understand the market and which people they should be approaching,” he says.

“In-house recruiters rarely engage in senior appointments. They come to us because they need a different service that adds value.”

Responding to criticisms about the commissions paid to headhunters, Grimsey says that rates are fair, because executive search is a specialised and time-consuming service.

“The commissions reflect the importance of the role we play,” he says.

“If a company questions the value of a service like that, it is because the headhunter didn’t deliver.”

Headhunters’ advice to CIOs on job seeking

Build your contact network: Sam Gordon at La Fosse says, “I could imagine the frustration of someone suddenly facing unemployment and having to build rapport from scratch with a headhunter, who may also happen to be very busy. It’s crucial to maintain a network of contacts and be engaged with them, even when not looking for work – not just headhunters, but also industry peers at the companies they may want to work for – so when the need arises the warm relationships are there.”

Work on your personal brand: Robert Grimsey at Harvey Nash says, “IT executives need to think a lot about their personal brand. They have so much to talk about but tend to not want to make themselves well-known. Things they could do include writing a blog, speaking at conferences, contributing to the wider community – and I don’t think IT people do that very well.”

Review your CV: “If CIOs are looking to present their skills and experience they should think carefully about how they do it. Despite having achieved a great deal, their CVs are often awful and way too technical, so a good idea when meeting a headhunter is to get at least five minutes of feedback about their CVs,” says Grimsey.

CIO’s advice to companies when using a headhunter

Spend time with them: Denise Plumpton says, “To get the best out of headhunters, it’s vital to invest your time up front to help them to get under the skin of your company and get a feel for the sort of person who will fit in to the culture and values of the organisation. Simply emailing a job description isn’t going to get you the best shortlist.”

Keep up-to-date: “Have regular update calls with the headhunter to get progress and feedback from initial interviews – be prepared to challenge the proposed shortlist if you feel that there’s a candidate about to be lost whose CV has particular appeal to you – but discuss, don’t dictate, otherwise why did you bother to go to the trouble and expense of using a headhunter in the first place,” says Plumpton.

Question their methods: “Ask for honest and open assessments, there may be a very good reason why the owner of that brilliant CV wouldn’t fit – or it just may be that you specified a maximum number on the shortlist and there are enough other good candidates. Communication is key,” she says.

Be focused: Kevin Power says, “I found it best to concentrate on one or two good agencies that developed a good understanding of my team and its challenges, rather than a blanket ‘scour the market’ approach. This time spent upfront was recovered through not interviewing unsuitable candidates.”

IT executive search – the facts

• CIO headhunters and agencies specialised on executive search normally charge a commission of a third of the candidate’s first year salary – top IT roles get pay packets of about £120,000 to £175,000, according to recruitment firm Robert Walters.

• Recruiters operating at that level usually work on an average of seven to 20 assignments at any one time, depending on their internal resources. Agents expect exclusivity when working for very senior roles.

• A shortlist with five to seven individuals is delivered to the client about two weeks from the start of the engagement. The employer will then choose to have interviews with two people. The recruitment process, from first contact to the job offer, lasts between four to six weeks.

• While recruitment companies will not discuss their failure rates, most will repeat assignments for senior searches for free, or at a heavily discounted rate, if the candidate proves unsuitable for the role after a certain amount of time.

• When working on global agreements, which involve recruitment of several roles – usually the case in so-called IT transformation programmes – headhunters and agencies will normally offer a reduced rate, whereas it is a lot harder to get a discount for one-off assignments.

Links versus Attachments – the dawn of content management

An interesting thing happened to me earlier this week which highlighted to me ways in which our work culture is being directly affected by changes in social media, tablets and mobile working by virtue of convenient (and often free) use of WiFi to connect to the internet.

I have to say I’m a bit surprised (perhaps naively) that there are several people out there who are still very much in the “dark ages” sticking to “old” technology and techniques for exchanging, sharing and communication information.

But first some background of my experiences …which caused this surprise …

Over the past 6-8 years, I’ve introduced Mobile Working and Remote Working practices into clients I worked for. This has included introducing “smartphones”, “tablets” and mobile working allowing people to work remotely and use technology to enhance their end-user experience and tasks/activities.

I’ve also  introduced “enterprise content management” into organisations reducing the need for attaching large files to emails and using “links” to information stored on a company internet/intranet/extranet site to improve security and accessibility to information (safely). This has led to better, more efficient ways of managing storage which many “users” of technology conveniently dismiss believing that it is being taken care of.

Anyhow …back to my story …

I was on the road and got a tip from a friend to email my CV to an organisation that typically finds work for Interim Managers and Strategy Consultants like me. However, being out and about, all I had with me was my trusty iPad.

As some of you who own (and use) iPads for work probably know – attaching files to mail on an iPad isn’t very straightforward when compared to Microsoft Office on PCs. This is, in my opinion, a (current) major shortfall of the iPad experience when using email. But I fully embrace the Apple philosophy of making technology fun and interactive and as the old adage goes “there is always a way …”!

I had a copy of my CV on Dropbox (a great “cloud” based file sharing utility) which allows you to generate and email a link to files. The link is as good as sending an attachment – it provides access to a read-only version of the file in a web-browser. This does mean that you should be able to read (for example) WORD documents in a web browser which I would expect most people with Microsoft Office to be able to do.

Including a link to a document is similar to what you can do with SharePoint within a corporate environment. However, many people (such as the dufus I was in email contact with) still don’t appreciate this concept and consider a link as something alien (… this does actually raise an important point of SPAM and information security). I was asked to stop wasting his time and just send an “attachment”! When I explained I was on the road, not in front of a PC and that the link was “as good as ..” he got a bit vexed (clearly out of his depth) and I (sorry couldn’t help myself) responded in kind …

Anyway, I advised him that I wouldn’t be proceeding with his company and that we should each go our separate ways.(Naturally, I said this in fewer more direct words!).

What did I learn from this experience? The “younger” and more technology-aware members of our communities are already changing the way they interact. Conversely, there is a generation which is (slowly) being left behind who don’t appreciate “new ways of working” and who need to be dragged kicking and screaming into the 21st century … I remain prepared to do my part … won’t you (and others) join me?!?

[Ironically, I’ve since found other apps such as “GoodReader” which also actually make adding attachments on an iPad possible. What a pallava! Guess all experiences, good AND bad, lead to learning something new!]

The value of decommissioning legacy systems

As someone who practices and advocates Enterprise Architecture and the role of the Enterprise Architect, I often find programme / project managers undersell and often overlook the value of decommissioning systems and the associated interfaces, processes and information.

This article serves as a great reminder of the business value of decommissioning systems that executives and senior management should be mindful of. In an age where Cloud Computing and “utility computing” are becoming a reality, organisations need to be more mindful of consolidation, rationalisation and replacement of legacy systems as they move into a new era of opportunity for Business/Technology alignment and innovation.

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IT risks—a director’s perspective

(Extracted from PWC’s ‘To the Point’ series – Spring 2011)

Some directors may be uncomfortable with the subject of information technology. Given how complex companies’ enterprise systems are, directors may be unclear about the questions they should be asking or the answers they should expect. But for some companies, where IT enables the company’s operations, it represents a major risk that boards should oversee.

How does a director know whether to step up the level of IT oversight? Much depends on the company and its complexity. Greater director oversight of IT is likely warranted if your company:

  • has a high volume of transactions; for example, a financial services company
  • collects and stores sensitive data about third parties (customers, patients)
  • has an open access network or open databases, allowing entry to the system by outsiders
  • maintains proprietary know—how, processes, procedures, or other intellectual property
  • has a multi—national scope

Even if your company doesn’t have these environmental factors, you should consider the need to increase director oversight when the level of IT risk increases, such as when:

  • major IT projects are underway—new systems, technologies or platforms
  • integrating programs from more than one platform—using “best of breed” products from different providers that require “bridging” programs to pass data from one platform to another
  • integrating an acquired business—especially one on a different IT platform
  • technology is enabling a new corporate strategy

So, how can boards be comfortable they are in a position to oversee IT risks that are important to the company? By

  • having someone on the board with reasonable technology skills,
  • asking the right questions and applying skepticism when considering the answers, for example, by asking follow—up questions and seeking corroboration through other sources, possibly an independent board advisor
  • understanding the full cost of technology, including the consulting fees to install the systems, as well as the licensing fees, equipment, training, maintenance, etc., and assess the implications of any cost variability
  • getting regular updates on project status and understanding the factors that would signal when a project is in trouble

IT oversight often falls to the audit committee, though strategically significant technologies might be overseen by the full board. And it’s important to realize technology oversight doesn’t end with major systems as we’ve discussed here. Directors should be aware of and comfortable with the company’s web presence, as well as its use of social media and its policies governing such use (see also To the Point, “Social Media: What Directors Need to Know,” Summer 2010).